Milk By-Products Utilization

Some proteins of down-regulation were involved in tissue development, organ morphogenesis, biological adhesion and response to transforming growth factor beta. Importantly, 16 down-regulated proteins were involved in substrate-specific transporter activity. Furthermore, six decreased proteins were enriched in glycosyl-compound biosynthetic process and three decreased proteins were related to ATPase activity. Lactose is the main component of whey, and constitutes ~70% of the total whey solids so whey is regarded as a good substrate for the production of lactose. The technological operations as well as the type of the used equipment are very similar to those employed for the manufacture of sucrose from sugar cane. Goat milk and its products have played an important role in the economic viability in many parts of the world, especially in developing countries. A variety of manufactured products can be produced from goat milk, including fluid products , fermented products such as cheese, yogurt or buttermilk, frozen products such as ice cream or frozen yogurt, butter, and condensed and powdered products.

  • Whey proteins are also rich in branched-chain amino acids , important in muscle health and as metabolic regulators in protein and glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism .
  • They also present sulfur-containing AAs that exert metabolic regulation and act as precursors of the potent intracellular antioxidant glutathione.
  • Zoppellari F., Bardi L. Production of bioethanol from effluents of the dairy industry by Kluyveromyces marxianus.
  • However, the latter two vitamins are bonded to whey proteins, what is the reason why they pass into the whey during cheese making.
  • The efficiency of lactobacilli fermentations can be enhanced by supplementation of the whey permeates with yeast extracts or yeast protein auto lysates .
  • An appreciable amount of GR is produced in the country which is a nutritionally rich source of proteins and nitrogenous compounds.

Different membrane filtration techniques, such as microfiltration , UF, NF, RO and electrodialysis are used to obtain WPC, WPI or WPH . Besides these, for WPI production, adsorption techniques such as ion exchange are also used . Some examples for the use of WPC and WPI in foods, such as cheeses, yoghurts, sauces and fermented drinks are referred by several authors .

Polylactic acid

Qazanfarzadeh and Kadivar reinforced WPI nanocomposite film properties with oat husk nanocellulose. Incorporation of biocompounds with natural antioxidant or antimicrobial activity into the whey protein isolate matrix has also become a field of research.

Currently, Getahun is a Livestock Research and Development Specialist with the Manitoba Government and an Adjunct Professor at the University of Manitoba, Canada. Marcos Cordeiro is assistant professor in sustainable food systems modeling at the Department of Animal Science of the University of Manitoba. He earned a PhD in Biosystems Engineering from the University of Manitoba and is registered as a Professional Engineer in that Province. His research focuses on the application of field monitoring and modeling tools at varying spatial scales to investigate current and emerging issues in crop and animal production systems. Over the last decade, Canada Sheep and Lamb Farms Ltd have successfully included bread, beet pulp, pea, lentil, and dried bean screenings in formulated rations to 60,000 ewes. Use of by-products will continue as they expand their operation from Canada into Russia. Bakery products are being used successfully by some Canadian cattle and sheep farms.

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The dairy industry has effluents of different characteristics, according to the product obtained (yogurt, cheese, butter, milk, ice cream, etc.). By-products contain various valuable nutrients; thus, their reuse in the production process allows efficient exploitation of all nutrients available in raw milk. The processing of dairy products becomes a complex network of interrelated production processes. Often, production of a certain dairy product results in an additional residual dairy flow by-product.

  • Use of by-products will continue as they expand their operation from Canada into Russia.
  • Only in the production process of cheese, is whey sewering one of the main contributors to the waste load.
  • Through utilization of manufacturing cheeses and other products, goat milk has played an important role in the economic well-being of developing countries as well as Mediterranean, Middle East and eastern European countries.
  • Macedo A., Duarte E., Pinho M. The role of concentration polarization in ultrafiltration of ovine cheese whey.
  • This volume is however reduced by only 4% and the factory is still left with a huge quantity of de-proteinised whey to dispose of or further process.

Lactose content is generally lower in acid whey, but the mineral content normally exceeds that of sweet whey . Due to the increase in food consumption and to the stringent environmental regulations, the management of food waste and by-products is a challenge for the agri-food industries that face demanding economic costs for their treatment and/or disposal. The dairy industry annually produces millions of tons of by-products, the main component of which is cheese whey , which corresponds to the net fraction remaining after milk coagulation. Around 9–10 L of whey results from the production of 1 kg of cheese and if discarded without treatment it creates a significant problem for the environment . Utilization of whey proteins in cheese through either the adoption of techniques favoring WP retention in the cheese network or the direct addition of dairy-based ingredients or their combination is a challenging area in dairy sector. Some techniques have been implemented and emerged in industrial processes. In addition, ultrafiltration process can be used to restrain and recover whey proteins from drained whey that can later be added to the cheese milk.

utilisation of by products from dairy industry

Cheese whey is simultaneously an effluent with strong organic and saline content and nutritional value. Whey contains valuable substances that are possible to valorise, including functional proteins and peptides, lipids, vitamins, minerals and lactose . In recent decades Dairies around the world have developed technologies, processing capacities, products and new business models for utilising these substances. The rapid growth in global markets for food ingredients, including whey-based protein powders, which are ‘among the winners of several new nutrition trends and food developments’ .

Two chapters are devoted to milk salts; one to vitamins and one to an overview of dairy products. Production of whey is on the upswing, and increasing along with it is the amount of research devoted to whey utilization. No longer regarded as an inferior by-product, whey utilization is now considered an attractive proposition at many cheese plants and also at many whey processing companies. Valorization of whey and buttermilk for production of functional beverages – an overview of current possibilities. Livestock can play a key role in using food waste and by-products by converting low-value materials into high-quality products. However, whey powder contains a fairly high proportion of mineral matter (8-10 g/100 g) and for some products it is more desirable to use demineralised whey otherwise the salty taste becomes evident. Demineralisation of whey before drying is generally performed by ion exchange electro dialysis or nanofiltration .


With increasingly strict environmental regulation of disposing of whey as waste has become difficult and costly. The growing societal focus on circular economy and the environmental pressure has forced the dairy industry to manage its whey side stream.

Avoidance of cheese vats, vat processors or cooling tanks being overfilled so that no spillage occurs during product agitation. The liquid level in cheese vats should be at least three inches below the top-edge of the vat. In developed countries, butter is made from cream that has been churned . In developing regions the technology in use for the making of butter and ghee is closely related to the technology to make fermented milk. Traditional butter is made from fully soured whole milk that is churned.


The peptide produced by this way has antioxidant properties and inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme . The angiotensin converting enzyme is known to play a role hypertension and is Milk By-Products Utilization a target of several anti-hypertension drugs. Furthermore, milk whey fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus increases bone density and osteoblast formation in comparison with normal whey.

Rama G.R., Kuhn D., Beux S., Maciel M.J., de Souza C.F.V. Potential applications of dairy whey for the production of lactic acid bacteria cultures. Tsolcha et al. developed a biological study for SCW wastewater treatment system able to generate biodiesel while removing polluting nutrients and chemical oxygen demand . The authors concluded that the well-adapted Choricystis-like algal could be efficiently used to treat SCW and the biomass produced could be harnessed as a source of biodiesel . Borges et al. used LWPC, liquid buttermilk and liquid sheep’s SCW concentrate as fat replacers in the production of reduced fat washed curd cheeses, envisaging the improvement of their flavor, texture and sensory properties. Those ingredients were incorporated into the milk, in the proportion of 5% (v/v). The reduced fat cheeses incorporating LWPC, LBM and LSCWC were compared to conventional reduced-fat cheeses and full-fat cheeses.

The seaweed removes between 80% – 85% of the phosphorus content, and 60% – 80% of the nitrogen in the wastewater; generating a biomass of 18.8 g/L and a biofuel production of 6.7 mL after 15 days of culture . Since most of the protein and fat present in whey are retained in whey cheeses, the residual proportion of these components in SCW, discourages its valorization. Therefore, it constitutes a serious environmental problem and its disposal constitutes a considerable expense for whey cheese making companies. In this direction the European commission recommends the exploitation of by-products of the dairy industry as raw material for alternative processes .

Milk By-Products Utilization

These properties were attributed to the peptides formed by the proteolytic activity of the bacteria or to increased bioavailability of proteins . Such studies suggest the need forclinical studies to provide a better understanding of the biological effects of the fermention products and their effects against osteoporosis. The anionic and cationic peptidic fractions obtained from hydrolyzed whey proteins showed emulsifying properties at alkaline pH. The anionic fractions demonstrated a better antioxidant activity. During this process whey hydrolyzation was achieved by incubation with vegetal cysteine proteinases such as papain and hemisphericine for a period of 360 minutes . Thermophilus produce a hydrolyzed mixture that contains bioactive peptides . Moreover, the bioactive peptides obtained had higher inhibitory activity against the angiotensin-converting enzyme . It could be inferred that this process could allow the use of goat whey to help prevent hypertension.

The authors used 18 strains of oleaginous yeasts to evaluate their growth and lipid-producing capabilities on this substrate. Laurentii UCD , demonstrated to be a very promising candidate for biodiesel production using SCW as substrate . Using a pilot-scale biological trickling filters in series with different operating conditions, Tatoulis et al. co-treated hexavalent chromium (Cr) with second SCW or winery effluents. The authors concluded that the wastewater could be used as a carbon source for Cr reduction. The use of two trickling filters in series could effectively treat wastewaters with very low installation and operational costs .

Milk By-Products Utilization

However, to develop new eco-efficient food packaging products with improved resistance to moisture transfer and enhanced flexibility, whey proteins need to be blended with suitable plasticisers, such as sorbitol or glycerol . Global and Canadian assessments of food loss and waste as a percentage of food grown are substantial, but there is no standardization as to how these assessments should be conducted. This hampers progress in our collective battle against food loss and waste by delaying public policy change and the creation of accountability metrics that can be applied across the food supply chain. Nonetheless, it is evident that redirection of food waste from landfills is necessary to improve global food security and resource sustainability issues. It is also logical that livestock, with their capacity to “up-cycle” relatively low-quality feedstuffs into high-quality protein, are an essential element of this solution. Canadian livestock producers are recognized globally for the animal care standards, milk, meat and egg quality and efficiency of production.

Some trials with calves shows whey to have about half the value of skim milk. Sweet whey has also been fed to milch cows, in an experiment and satisfactory results obtained where pounds were given to each animal, in addition to other food. Buttermilk is also used to manufacture soft varieties of cheese, paneer, fermented milks and traditional milk products. The best use to which skim milk can be applied is as human food, in its uncooked state as flavoured milk. The use of skim milk instead of whole milk as food, in its natural state, is simply a matter of taste and habit. A quart of skim milk contains more proteins than the whole milk and the former is cheaper and better than the latter as a substitute for meats and other animal feeds. A report upon dietary studies made at University of Tennessee in 1987 said that the nutrients in milk are equal in physiological value to those of meats and are far less expensive.

What is the byproduct of milk?

The dairy industry processes raw milk into an array of products including butter, cheese, cream, yogurt, ghee, condensed milk, dried milk, ice cream, etc. and produces various by-products including buttermilk, whey, ghee, and skim milk.

GR is a rich source of phospholipids from which phospholipids can be recovered and added to ghee. Pruthi et al. described a heat-processing method for the extraction and fortification of ghee with GR phospholipids. Ribeiro and McAllister, 2016) due to factors including sprouting damage or low protein content which interfere with the malting process. However, barley that is rejected for malt production is acceptable as livestock feed. Furthermore, cereal grains and pulses are cleaned of contaminants prior to shipping, generating “grain screenings” consisting of mixtures of broken grains, chaff, weed seeds, and dust. The chemical composition of grain screenings can vary substantially depending on the parental material from which they were derived and their origin during the cleaning process.

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