Transgender women in Malaysia, relating to HIV and Islam: a qualitative study of stakeholders’ awareness



Globally, on the list of secret communities thought to be at perilous of obtaining HIV are transgender people, commonly a marginalised crowd. From inside the Malaysian setting there was a scarceness of posted investigation regarding transgender people, a sensitive issue in a Muslim most place, exactly where Islam has an influential role in society. Likewise, there was a paucity of research relating to how this sort of problems associate with HIV prohibition in transgender feamales in Malaysia.

Thus, the aim of these studies should search the mindsets of stakeholders involved in HIV protection approach in Malaysia towards transgender ladies, given the Islamic framework.


In-depth interview comprise started with stakeholders associated with HIV anticipation, Ministry of Health, spiritual management and other people experiencing HIV, including transgender women. Thirty-five members comprise recruited making use of purposive sampling from June to December 2013 within Kuala Lumpur and associated with vicinities. Interview are personally, audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and employed a framework test.


Five main motifs arised from your qualitative records; Perceptions of Transgender people along with their devote Our society; calling Transgender girls; Islamic doctrine; ‘Cure’, ‘Correction’ and finally, mark and Discrimination.

Debate: Islamic rulings about transgenderism comprise usually the justification distributed by individuals chastising transgender females, whilst there were in addition a whole lot more gradual attitudes and space for debate. Pervading unfavorable perceptions and mark and discrimination developed a climate wherein transgender ladies typically thought confident with non-governmental enterprises.


The circumstance of transgender women in Malaysia and HIV prevention are a properly vulnerable and difficult ecosystem for those stakeholders, given the Muslim situation and recent appropriate system. Not surprisingly evident impasse, discover virtually attainable markets that can be improved upon to optimize HIV prohibition facilities and also the planet for transgender women in Malaysia.


Internationally, one of several principal organizations regarded as at perilous of buying HIV include transgender women, identified when it comes to these studies, as ladies designated a man gender at beginning but exactly who identify by themselves as actually lady. Transgender girls often portray a marginalised society and a ‘very large stress public for HIV’ [1]. In a complete meta-analysis and systematic evaluation executed by Baral and associates, an assessment associated with relative HIV problem in transgender ladies got started most notably 15 region which reported a pooled HIV occurrence of 19.1% in 11,066 women worldwide and so the probabilities ratio of being afflicted with HIV for transgender ladies compared to all people of a reproductive get older had been 48.8 [1]. The authors deduce that there’s an ‘urgent need of prohibition’ in transgender ladies in friends which can be typically definitely not contained in nationwide HIV monitoring and establish elements, for example wedding in high-risk anal sex with guy enhancing their particular susceptability, and even mark and discrimination in health related methods as limitations to accessing HIV protection work [1]. Inside UNAIDS reduction Gap Report, essential populations such transgender women can be certainly not gotten to by existing anticipation initiatives [2]. The Parts of asia Pacific Trans strategy for wellness actually in operation clearly claims ‘trans lady as disproportionately afflicted by HIV—yet you can still find insufficient programs or work geared to fulfill trans-specific requirement’ [3]. Research has determined that transgender women are at enhanced risk of HIV with points, like bad erotic behavior, retail intercourse jobs and stigma and discrimination [4]. Operario and friends done a meta-analysis and discovered the prevalence of HIV would be larger in transgender female love-making workers versus transgender women that would not practice love services, 27.3% and 14.7% respectively [5].

In addition, Transgender ladies usually are at risk or have an increased weight of health issues besides HIV for instance psychological issues and substance misuse [6], in addition to pervasive societal discrimination may setup a boundary to opening health related [7]. This is situation worldwide along with the Asia-Pacific location in nations for example, Malaysia [8].

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